Santa de Federico Gamboa ruboriza a lectores

"Sola" (1896), Henri Toulouse-Lautrec

“Sola” (1896), Henri Toulouse-Lautrec



Como parte de las actividades de la XXXV Feria Internacional del Libro del Palacio de Minería, Luz Viveros Anaya y Lilián Álvarez Arellano, ambas académicas de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, charlaron sobre la obra de Federico Gamboa (1864-1939) en la conmemoración de los 150 años de su nacimiento.

Lourdes Franco, quien moderó la mesa redonda: Federico Gamboa: Una perspectiva autobiográfica, cuestionó a las especialistas en la obra de Gamboa sobre la supuesta inmoralidad del escritor mexicano. Anaya contestó: “Si hay un personaje prototípico de la literatura mexicana es Gamboa. Santa nos puede parecer una inocentada hoy, pero se trata de la caída de una mujer en la prostitución”.

Santa, la obra más conocida del escritor oriundo de la Ciudad de México, fue más que la obra literaria de Gamboa, “Santa fue el sustento material de Gamboa. Vivió de sus regalías cuando la revolución le suspendió su pensión”, señaló Lilián Álvarez. Sin embargo, tal fue el valor de la obra del escritor conservador que incluso la revolución terminó por reconocerlo.

Luz Viveros, también investigadora del Instituto de Investigaciones filológicas, agregó que Gamboa tuvo toda la vida la mano puesta en la escritura del yo: “a los 28 años publicó una autobiografía. Allí narra sus amores con las llamadas mujeres de moral liviana”. Por su parte, Lilián Álvarez complementó la opinión de su colega: “a lo largo de su vida, hasta los 80 años, si veía pasar a una mujer bonita, Gamboa se sentía vivo”.

“¿Por qué escribir un libro de memorias a los 28 años?” inquirió Lourdes Franco. La respuesta es que Gambo vivió numerosas experiencias a una corta edad. A los 28 años era académico de la Lengua en Guatemala, ya había montado dos obras teatrales, había viajado representando de forma oficial al gobierno mexicano. Conocía Nueva York y París. En Francia se había relacionado con varias prostitutas y había sido feliz en el Moulin Rouge.

A los 28 años ya había trabajado como periodista, cosa que, según Luz Viveros, le agradaba mucho porque podía entrar a los camerinos y sorprender a las actrices con “una media a media pierna”. El escritor mexicano poseía un largo historial de don juan. De hecho, él decía que  “ya había probado todo tipo de mujeres”. Por eso Gamboa pudo escribir un libro de memorias a los 28 años.

Las especialistas de la obra del también candidato a la presidencia por el partido conservador, explicaron que Gamboa fue el primer mexicano que se relacionó ampliamente con la intelectualidad de Buenos Aires. En las tertulias leyó sus memorias y a los argentinos les gustó lo que estaba escribiendo. Finalmente, lo publicaron en Argentina. En México uno de los primeros en elogiarlo fue El Conde Job, nada más que Manuel Gutiérrez Nájera.

Por otro lado, Lourdes Franco subrayó que error de Gamboa fue participar en el gobierno golpista de Victoriano Huerta. Sin embargo, Luz Viveros aseguró que dicho error no fue una equivocación exclusiva de Gamboa, se trató de un “error de la intelectualidad mexicana”.

| RMM | AP |


* Cortesía de la Feria Internacional del Libro del Palacio de Minería


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