“Se levanta el viento” en la Plaza de Santo Domingo

Fotograma de "Se levanta el viento" (Hayao Miyazaki, 2013)

Fotograma de “Se levanta el viento” (Hayao Miyazaki, 2013)

GONZALO TRINIDAD VALTIERRA |

 

Emprenderá el gran pájaro su primer vuelo desde el lomo de su gigantesco cisne

(Cecere, pequeño cerro cerca de Florencia), llenando de asombro el mundo,

divulgándose en mil escritos su fama; convertido en eterna gloria del nido en que nació.

Da Vinci / Aforismos

Se levanta el viento inauguró el Festival Internacional de Cine de la UNAM la noche del 27 de febrero con una función abierta al público en la Plaza de Santo Domingo; ha atraído a espectadores inusuales que, en la plaza, se dejan llevar por la corriente de aire fresco de las imágenes.

Mientras tanto, Hayao, en algún lugar de Japón, estará soñando con aves aterradoras o aeroplanos de madera. Aquí, en occidente, las expectativas del filme no defraudan a sus fieles seguidores. Un aplauso sacude a los espectadores.

El filme está basado a en la novela corta El viento se alza de Tatsuo Hori, The wind rises (Se levanta el viento, 2013), dirigida por Hayao Miyazaki, que cuenta la vida del ingeniero aeronáutico que diseñó el Mitsubishi A6M Zero, uno de los aviones que pusieron en jaque a los Aliados durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Mismos aviones que bombardearon a la flota estadounidense en Pearl Harbor.

Si bien el filme ha alterado a las facciones políticas japonesas, llámense de izquierda o derecha. Las cuales han tildado el trabajo de Miyazaki de apología del imperialismo nipón. Detrás de las naves de guerra, se esconde una pasión que tanto Miyazaki y Jirō Horikoshi, en su tiempo, comparten.

Se levanta el viento coincide además con el anuncio del retiro como director de Hayao Miyazaki. Que se va dejando su trabajo mejor acabado y en el que sus obsesiones como creador han encontrado su mejor expresión, quizá la más madura.

En cuanto a la proyección en la Plaza de Santo Domingo, a pesar de que no todos alcanzaron un asiento, la gente permaneció de píe para presenciar la función. A espaldas de la pantalla y los pendones del FICUNAM la iglesia de Santo Domingo, iluminada, reposa sobria y majestuosa como un gigante que a ratos estorbaba.

El filme rápidamente atrapó a los espectadores, jóvenes, señores acompañando a sus hijas, y hombres y mujeres de rasgos orientales contemplan la obra maestra de Miyazaki. Luego un terremoto sacude Tokio y un incendio arrasa la ciudad. Imágenes tan pulidas, de un realismo tan bien acabado, que sorprenden a adultos y jóvenes.

Camino para apreciar, desde diferentes ángulos, la película; hay puntos estratégicos para disfrutar la proyección. Las piernas de la Corregidora, me parece, es el mejor lugar para un espectador dispuesto a escalar hasta la escultura del  italiano Enrique Alciati. Pero nadie lo hace.

La organización, debo mencionarlo, deja a muchos espectadores decepcionados. “Una pantalla más grande”, dice uno. “¿Por qué hay sillas? Deberíamos estar todos sentados en el suelo”. “O debería haber más sillas”, dice otro. “¿Por qué no cerraron la circulación de República de Brasil?”, pregunta una mujer que llevó a su hija, “no se puede escuchar nada más que los pitidos de los automóviles”.

A pesar de los percances, el filme continúa. “Pero soy miope. No puedo volar”, dice un joven Jirō Horikoshi; sus gafas son idénticas a las de Miyazaki. Son tan parecidos que imagino al animador japonés diciendo lo mismo cuando era apenas un muchacho que soñaba con acariciar el cielo.

El filme, con un acabado naturalista y muy detallado, vuelve a presentarnos las obsesiones del director. En primer lugar, es una oda a la perseverancia y al trabajo. Y, a pesar de que el pan de las naves era la conquista de las naciones, uno no puede dejar de identificarse con el joven diseñador.

Los trenes vuelven a deleitar a todos los espectadores con alma de niño. En sus filmes, por mencionar algunos detalles, hay dos trenes que me han maravillado: el gato-tren y el tren en el que aborda Chihiro que parece flotar sobre las aguas del mar. Esas máquinas maravillosas que han sido el motor de muchas naciones adquieren en la obra de Miyazaki alturas poéticas. O quiméricas, como el castillo vagabundo.

Esta obsesión por las máquinas que han cambiado el mundo: trenes, relojes, aviones, máquinas de vapor, animales fantásticos que emiten sonidos y dejan huellas como si se de bestezuelas mitológicas tratara, es inagotable. Es, como dice Jirō, “un camino sin fin que se abre ante mis ojos”.

Pero no hay obsesión más bella en la obra de Miyazaki que el vuelo.

 

El vuelo

Giovanni Battista “Gianni” Caproni, creador italiano de aves rapaces mecánicas. Influencia definitiva en el trabajo de su contraparte japonesa, muchos años después. Descendiente directo de Dédalo; fue quien pobló el cielo con estos animales fantásticos que podían lo mismo esparcir la muerte que desprender al hombre de su contingencia terrestre.

Para que un trozo de materia vuele necesita dos cosas. Estar constituido conforme a las leyes de la naturaleza que permitan el vuelo. Y tener un alma que, de alguna forma, pilotee el armazón. Da Vinci explicó que el alma del pájaro de metal es el alma del hombre que la pilotea.

Dejando a un lado el problema de la existencia de un alma de pájaro o de hombre, pensemos que, para que la aeronave se eleve, es necesario que exista una necesidad en el hombre, un vacío que sólo el vuelo pueda llenar temporalmente. Pues, el hombre o cualquier animal, no se mueve sino para saciar sus necesidades.

Esta necesidad por volar es el alimento de Jirō Horikoshi. Viendo su retrato no encontraremos ningún vestigio de maldad. Sólo un muchacho en su etapa de estudiante en la Facultad de Ingeniería; quien, como Da Vinci, debió tener una mirada que penetraba los intersticios de los mecanismos más complejos de la naturaleza.

Pero su época no fue pacífica. El mundo se convulsionaba en cada rincón. Y el cielo, que alguna vez fue el límite, se desvanecía como frontera y se integraba a los dominios del hombre. Esa criatura cuya voluntad fue capaz de levantar catedrales y pirámides ahora se decidía a alzar el vuelo.

Esta misma necesidad por explorar el vuelo la comparte Miyazaki. En sus filmes ha dejado que su obsesión, cual Ícaro, se desborde en historias fantásticas. Recuerdo, en este momento, a Porco Rosso en su avión de hélices, a Chihiro montando el lomo de un dragón y a Totoro con su redondez como flotando en el aire. Todos ellos metáforas del vuelo, de la amistad y el valor

¿Por qué tendríamos que pensar que un filme sobre Jirō Horikoshi es una exaltación de la guerra? En realidad, mientras veo la película, no puedo dejar de pensar en otro hombre que vivió la Segunda Guerra Mundial desde el aire, Antoine de Saint-Exupey.

El vuelo posibilita mirar el mundo de otra forma. Lo que a flor de tierra luce inmenso y deífico, desde el aire es diminuto y pasajero. Nada desprende más al hombre de la necesidad que el vuelo. ¿Cuántos hombres, en sus sueños, se han convertido en pájaros majestuosos? ¿Quién no ha soñado con aves negras que esparcen el infortunio y la muerte?

¿Quién no ha tenido, por un segundo, la ensoñación, casi el sentimiento, de abandonar la tierra?

En el año 1940. Japón es un imperio. El cielo le pertenece, pues ahora es recortado por aves metálicas llamadas Zero. Aviones de combate. Las dogfights (peleas de perros) son un espectáculo nacido en la Primera Guerra Mundial y perfeccionado por los nipones en la Segunda Guerra. Un juego de astucia y maniobras —casi suicidas— que tienen como objetivo derribar al enemigo.

Para que cada giro vertiginoso ocurra a la perfección, el piloto debe ser uno con su nave. El radio de giro, perfectamente calculado, y la velocidad, óptima, son condiciones necesarias para que el juego se lleve a cabo. Lo que la tiza y el asfalto a la rayuela.

Una maniobra de persecución pura, cuando es bien orquestada, es tan sublime como una danza ensayada cientos o miles de veces. El aire es el escenario. Y las balas que escupe el morro de la nave no tienen otro sentido que el de perforar el fuselaje, destrozar al piloto, incendiar al enemigo. Un espectáculo maravilloso en el que dos halcones de 12 m de envergadura intentan eliminarse.

Y todo esto, en el Japón imperial de mediados del siglo XX, es producto de Jirō Horikoshi, quien diseño estas magníficas aves de caza y que poblaron la plaza de Santo Domingo, al menos a través de la imagen cinematográfica.

"Las ideas de Miyazaki"

“Las ideas de Miyazaki”

| RMM | GT | @Seliztli |

_______________

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