Sodomita

“Lot y su familia dejando Sodoma, guiados por ángeles” (1625), Paul Rubens

PAULINA ARRIAGA CARRASCO |

El concepto de sodomía fue utilizado durante siglos para designar los actos sexuales que no tenían como fin la procreación. Actualmente es poco común, sin embargo, se sigue asociando con las relaciones sexuales entre dos hombres. Las leyes que aún penalizan la homosexualidad se conocen como leyes de sodomía y están presentes en 78 países.

Según el Diccionario de la Lengua Española, la palabra sodomía es “la práctica del coito anal” y proviene de “Sodoma, antigua ciudad de Palestina, donde se practicaba todo género de actos deshonestos”. Los relatos de la ciudad de Sodoma se encuentran en la Biblia en los libros del Génesis y de Ezequiel, ambos del Antiguo Testamento.

En Génesis, capítulo 13 se relata la salida de Abraham y su sobrino Lot de Egipto. Debido a que ambos hombres tenían rebaños muy grandes y entre sus pastores había peleas, decidieron establecerse en ciudades distintas. Abraham se estableció en la región de Canaán y Lot se trasladó al oriente, en las ciudades ubicadas desde el valle del Jordán hasta Sodoma. En este capítulo se describe a los habitantes de Sodoma: “Mas los habitantes de Sodoma eran grandes pecadores ante Yahvé” (Génesis 13, 13). Posteriormente, en el capítulo 18 se revisita la situación de Sodoma, pues su destino había sido trazado: “Entonces Yahvé le dijo [a Abraham]: ‘Las quejas contra Sodoma y Gomorra son enormes; ¡qué grande es su pecado! Voy a visitarlos, y comprobaré si han actuado o no según el rumor que ha llegado hasta a mí. Si no es así, lo sabré.’” (Génesis 18, 20-21)

A pesar de que en la Biblia se hace referencia a Sodoma y a Gomorra, la primera ciudad tiene mayor relevancia en el relato y es a la que se asocia con el pecado. De igual manera, el gentilicio de Sodoma, sodomita[1], es el término que se usa para referirse a las personas que tienen relaciones sexuales anales, el gentilicio de Gomorra (¿gomorrita?) no es una palabra que se haya extendido para designar esta práctica.

No obstante la asociación que se hace de los habitantes de Sodoma y de Gomorra con el pecado, en el libro del Génesis no hay relación directa con alguna conducta de tipo sexual, de hecho no se especifica cuáles eran los pecados que cometían y por los que Dios recibía quejas (se afirma, sin embargo, que se trata de “grandes” o “muy graves” pecados). En el relato bíblico Dios decide mandar a sus emisarios (dos ángeles) a verificar dichas acusaciones. Lot, quien no era originario de Sodoma pero residía en esa ciudad, estando sentado en la entrada de la misma, observa la venida de los enviados y les da asilo. Es esta parte de la historia la que se ha utilizado para relacionar a Sodoma con el sexo anal:

Pero antes de que ellos se acostaran [los emisarios de Dios], todos los hombres de Sodoma, sin excepción, jóvenes y ancianos, rodearon la casa [de Lot]. Llamaron a Lot y le dijeron: “¿Dónde están esos hombres que llegaron a tu casa anoche? Échalos para afuera, para que abusemos de ellos.”

Lot salió de la casa, cerrando la puerta detrás de sí, y les dijo: “Les ruego, hermanos míos, que no cometan tal maldad. Oigan, tengo aquí dos hijas que todavía son vírgenes. Se las voy a traer para que hagan con ellas lo que quieran, pero dejen tranquilos a estos hombres que han confiado en mi hospitalidad”. (Génesis 19, 4-8)

Finalmente los ángeles hieren con ceguera a los atacantes, salvando así a Lot y a su familia. Ante este episodio Dios confirma la maldad de los que ahí habitaban y decide destruir las ciudades de Sodoma y Gomorra.

En el libro de Ezequiel, en la alegoría sobre la historia de Jerusalén, se retoma la experiencia de la ciudad de Sodoma. En este relato Dios le pide a Ezequiel que “hable” con la ciudad de Jerusalén y que le recuerde a su hermana pecadora: Sodoma. Dios le menciona a Ezequiel cuáles fueron los pecados de esa ciudad ya destruida: “La maldad de Sodoma y de sus vecinas consistió en que estaban orgullosas, satisfechas en su abundancia, despreocupadas en su tranquilidad. Además no socorrieron al pobre ni al indigente. Se pusieron orgullosas, cometieron cosas horribles en mi presencia, por eso las hice desaparecer como has visto.” (Ezequiel 16, 49-50)

Analizando las citas del Génesis y del libro de Ezequiel se puede observar que no basta con leer la Biblia para comprender la relación que hay entre la ciudad de Sodoma y la práctica del sexo anal, esta asociación es posterior. Se le ha dado esa connotación por el intento de los habitantes de Sodoma de abusar sexualmente de los emisarios de Dios, sin embargo, en la Biblia no se menciona que el coito anal fuera una práctica común entre los sodomitas.

Probablemente no sea una cuestión menor la cuestión del abuso, sin embargo, esa parte del episodio es la única a la que se le ha dado énfasis y se han ignorado otras igual o más polémicas, tal como el ofrecimiento de las hijas de Lot por su propio padre, quien exalta su virginidad y reitera que a ellas sí les pueden hacer lo que quieran.

Si se piensa que el intento de abusar de los emisarios es suficiente para la connotación que se le otorga a Sodoma, habría que precisar que lo que ahí se relata es una violación, un abuso sexual, y no una relación consensuada entre hombres adultos. Este aspecto es relevante ya que en muchos países, en donde se penaliza la homosexualidad, no hay distinción alguna entre una violación y una relación homosexual aceptada por ambas partes. Situación que, sin duda alguna, fomenta la idea de que las personas no heterosexuales son violadores y/o pederastas.

Por otro lado, si nos remitimos a los pecados de Sodoma descritos en el libro de Ezequiel, los sodomitas no serían los hombres que tiene prácticas sexuales con hombres o las personas que practican sexo anal, sino los soberbios, los orgullosos, los que no ayudan a los pobres, etc.

Independientemente de los relatos bíblicos acerca de la destrucción de estas dos ciudades, a lo largo de la historia, se han utilizado términos como sodomía y sodomita para hacer alusión al pecado, al libertinaje sexual y específicamente a las relaciones entre hombres o al sexo anal. El concepto, aunque cada vez menos común, contiene una carga sexual difícil de borrar, es prácticamente imposible escuchar que alguien le llame sodomita a un hombre heterosexual, rico, avaro, orgulloso y que no vea por los pobres.

En el siglo XVII Donatien Alphonse François, mejor conocido como el Marqués de Sade, escribió 120 días en Sodoma mientras se encontraba preso en la Bastilla. En este texto se narran experiencias sexuales que salen de lo permitido moralmente. Este libro es un ejemplo de la relación que se hace de la ciudad de Sodoma con una sexualidad desenfrenada y fuera de los cánones aceptados. Otro ejemplo literario relacionado con el pasaje bíblico del Génesis es la autobiografía de Salvador Novo, La estatua de sal. En ella, Novo plasma sus experiencias homosexuales. El título hace referencia a la esposa de Lot, ella fue convertida en estatua de sal en el momento de la destrucción de Sodoma por no escuchar a Dios, quien les había ordenado huir sin mirar hacia atrás.

La Biblia, a pesar de no proveer fundamentos sólidos que relacionen a Sodoma con las prácticas sexuales entre hombres, sí provee pasajes en donde se condenan explícitamente estas relaciones, siendo este mismo asunto omitido en el caso de las mujeres. En el libro del Levítico, Yahvé proporciona a los hijos de Israel —dirigiéndose a la población masculina únicamente— una serie de reglas a seguir para que su nación no sea castigada, entre ella las relacionadas con la homosexualidad y bestialidad:

No tendrás relaciones con un hombre como se hace con una mujer: esto es una cosa abominable. Ni hombres ni mujeres tengan relaciones con un animal: es una infamia. (Levítico 18, 22-23)

El hombre que se acueste con un varón como se acuesta con una mujer, ambos han cometido una infamia; los dos morirán y su sangre caerá sobre ellos. (Levítico 20, 13)

Es evidente que la relación entre Sodoma y la homosexualidad se debe buscar en otro lado. El origen del término sodomía como referente de actos meramente sexuales es confuso. A pesar de que en los diccionarios de lengua española se encuentra como definición la práctica del sexo anal, en el caso de las leyes de sodomía es diverso lo que se entiende por ella; puede ir desde la relación de dos personas del mismo sexo (sean hombres o mujeres), sexo anal (aunque sea practicado por un hombre y una mujer), sexo con animales (o bestialidad), etc. A pesar de esta diversidad, en el ámbito eclesiástico la sodomía no se relaciona con las relaciones sexuales entre mujeres, siendo ésta una cuestión ignorada.

Jan Hopman, teólogo e investigador del Centro Ecuménico Diego de Medellín, en su documento llamado “La sodomía en la historia de la moral eclesial”, retoma el pensamiento de San Agustín de Hipona (354-430), el cual tuvo una gran influencia y veía al deseo sexual como algo deshumanizante, únicamente permitido en la vida matrimonial y con el fin de la procreación. Sin embargo, no es allí en donde se establece la conexión entre Sodoma y la homosexualidad, sino mucho antes:

Una interpretación sexual, y posteriormente una interpretación homosexual, de la decadencia de Sodoma surge sólo en el primer siglo antes de Cristo dentro del judaísmo. Ésa es la forma en la cual se expresó la religión israelita bajo las condiciones de régimen helenístico y su cultura.

[…] la primera inequívoca explicación homosexual de la decadencia de Sodoma es dada por el filósofo y teólogo judío Philo de Alejandría [cuyo pensamiento tuvo una importante influencia en pensadores cristianos] (13 a.C.-45/50 d.C.). Este erudito, con una educación tanto rabina como helenística, juega un importante papel en el proceso de aculturación de los modos de vida de los judíos y helenos. Philo comparte la aversión judía hacia las prácticas homosexuales, obviamente aceptadas en el ambiente helenístico. Al explicar los relatos de Abraham él describe detalladamente a Sodoma y su estilo de vida […].[2]

Hopman señala que en la Sodoma que describe Philos no sólo hay lujo y riqueza desmedida, sino que existen actos sexuales que rompen con las supuestas leyes de la naturaleza y se habla explícitamente de relaciones consensuadas entre hombres. En esa descripción de una Sodoma mediterránea y ajena a la del relato bíblico, los habitantes fueron castigados con infertilidad. Aquí es donde está presente la relación entre Sodoma y los actos sexuales entre varones, cabe recalcar que no es en la Biblia donde se encuentra, sino en un relato posterior. Este relato está basado en el Génesis, no obstante, fue modificado por el autor y se añadieron situaciones que no están presentes en la Biblia.

Después de conocer esta primera relación explícita, tenemos que en Roma —en el año 342— fueron los emperadores Constantino y Constancio quienes por primera vez impusieron una legislación que abordaba estas prácticas. En el año 390 los emperadores Valentiniano, Teodosio y Arcadio emiten un edicto en el que se establece que el castigo sería la quema. Estas disposiciones se conocen por el Codex Justinianeus del siglo VI, que es una recopilación de la legislación romana que influyó posteriormente en las legislaciones de Europa. El emperador Justiniano (483-565 D.C.) fue quién ordenó esta recopilación, durante su mandato castigó legalmente la sodomía justificándolo con el relato de Sodoma. Al respecto, Jan Hopman indica lo siguiente:

La causa de la penalización de los sodomitas está en que ellos constituyen un peligro para el Estado, porque Dios castiga por estos crímenes a la población entera con catástrofes como hambrunas, terremotos y pestes, como Él castigó anteriormente a Sodoma. Por primera vez en la historia se introduce el mito de Sodoma como justificación de las medidas penales contra la conducta homosexual. La penalización de los sodomitas de parte del gobierno es una forma de prevención: protege a la población contra la ira de Dios. (pp. 116-117)

Estos hechos históricos nos muestran cómo los relatos bíblicos, a pesar de sí contener pasajes que condenan las relaciones sexuales entre hombres, no son la fuente principal de la relación entre Sodoma y los actos sexuales entre varones. En la Biblia tampoco se establece que se deba castigar estas prácticas mediante algún instrumento jurídico, simplemente queda como una ley o norma a seguir con Dios. La sodomía pasó de ser un concepto de uso eclesial a uno de tipo jurídico y posteriormente a un concepto cada vez más olvidado. A pesar de su desuso, las leyes de sodomía, vigentes en el siglo XXI en 78 países, tienen como base este concepto.

| RMM | PAC | @arriagap |

________________

Paulina Arriaga Carrasco. Estudió la Licenciatura en Relaciones Internacionales en la Facultad de Ciencias Políticas y Sociales de la UNAM. Cursó el Diplomado de Diversidad Sexual en el Programa Universitario de Estudios de Género. Ha colaborado en diversos proyectos de la organización Propuesta Cívica A.C. y actualmente es becaria de investigación en el Colegio de México. Su interés por los temas de diversidad sexual se ve reflejado en su proyecto de tesis: “Las leyes de sodomía en la Commonwealth del siglo XXI; una herencia colonial británica”.



[1] La palabra sodomita existe en el diccionario de la Real Academia de la Lengua Española y significa natural de Sodoma o que comete sodomía. A pesar de esto, en la Biblia no se utiliza este adjetivo, ni como gentilicio ni para referirse a alguien que practica sexo anal, y se puede constatar que en el texto del Génesis se hace referencia a “los habitantes de Sodoma”, no a los “sodomitas”.

[2]Jan Hopman, “La sodomía en la historia de la moral eclesial”, en Masculinidad/es. Identidad y familia. Primer encuentro de estudios de masculinidad, Chile, RED Masculinidad Chile-UAHC-FLACSO, mayo 2000, pp.114-115.

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