Surrealismo en el MUNAL

“Paredes Blancas”, 1962 / Gunther Gerzso

El surrealismo está en el MUNAL. Esta vanguardia del siglo XX surgió como movimiento literario, y nació para llegar a un lugar de no retorno. André Bretón lo dijo: “todo lleva a creer que existe un cierto punto del espíritu donde la vida y la muerte, lo real y lo imaginario, el pasado y el futuro, lo comunicable y lo incomunicable, lo alto y lo bajo, cesen de ser percibidos contradictoriamente”.

Ciudades que brotan de los sueños con ojos vigilantes en las ventanas, ojos diseccionados para ver mejor el mundo detrás del mundo, laberintos, lunas, gatos y hasta una mujer caballo son sólo algunas imágenes que se encuentran en la exposición. Figuras misteriosas contenidas en la propia realidad, producto de los sueños desbocados, las sesiones de psicoanálisis y el peyote de la Tarahumara.

El principio de los vasos comunicantes enunciado por Galileo, y reinterpretado más tarde por André Bretón, serviría como metáfora de la comunicación no sólo entre disciplinas diversas como la filosofía, la poesía, la pintura, la fotografía y el cine, sino también entre Europa y América.

Decía Maurice Blanchot que lo surreal no era una escuela, sino un estado de la conciencia. Ese estado donde el sueño y la vigilia son una sola realidad, una realidad y una belleza convulsivas, donde todo se relaciona con todo y ocurre un desborde de significados donde lo real es ya lo onírico y lo consciente. Esta sobrecarga de significados del mundo no puede llevar sino a la locura, ese punto sin retorno del que hablaba André Bretón, y que en el caso de Leonora Carrington fue el hospital psiquiátrico de Santander.

Con obras de Max Ernst, Marcel Jean, Gunther Gerzso, Guillermo Meza, Man Ray, René Magritte, Joan Miró, Manuel Álvarez Bravo y José Olmedo, entre otros, el recorrido por la exposición es como un sueño formado de muchos sueños.

Con cada obra se van dando a veces pequeños pasos o saltos enormes entre pueblos, guardianes de los sueños, trasmundos insospechados, goules y hasta muestras audiovisuales en pequeñas salas a lo largo del recorrido, una de ella formada por cerraduras en las que hay que deslizar el ojo para descubrir su contenido.

Uno de los temas recurrentes es el ojo. Ya sean los ojos de Joan Miró o de Buñuel, estos hacen referencia al fetiche de la visión, la magia, la construcción y deconstrucción del espacio, como en la famosa escena de Un perro Andaluz donde se disecciona un ojo con una navaja de rasurar, casi como las nubes que cortan la luna llena. Las formas se disgregan, se fragmentan y encuentran otros significados. La visión es recompensada, especialmente con la temporada de cine surrealista, titulada “El ojo y sus narrativas”, la cual contará con proyecciones todos los fines de semana hasta el domingo 9 de Septiembre. En ella se incluyen filmes de Jodorowsky, de Sergei Eisenstein, de Michel Gondry y más; en todos se explora el sueño como parte de la realidad.

Como en el cuadro de Leonora Carrington, la noche que todo lo guarda tiene los secretos para provocar sueños eróticos, Remedio Varo nos ha legado una lista de ingredientes que incluye gallinas blancas, kilos de miel, un espejo, un ladrillo y un corsé con ballenas. Bien mezclada “las personas normales pueden ir placenteramente del beso a la estrangulación, de la violación al incesto, etcétera, etcétera”. Muchas son las formas que utilizaron para explorar el surrealismo, el cadáver exquisito, el fumage, el collage y hasta el frottage, este último quizá en todas sus modalidades.

En este mundo postmoderno de lo desechable y lo inmediato, dominado por la imagen de los medios de comunicación masiva y el imperio de la imagen fugaz, lo surreal se presenta no como un escape de la realidad cruda, mordaz y muchas veces insoportable, sino como invitación a la exploración de las ciudades secretas, de las contradicciones de lo cotidiano. Es búsqueda en el pasado y apertura a otras realidades. Es revalorar la capacidad de soñar con otros mundos. Quizá los surrealistas nos dicen aún más de lo que estamos dispuestos a ver y escuchar con nuestros sentidos aturdidos por la tragedia de lo moderno. Vale la pena intentar ver con otros ojos y soñar.

Surrealismo. Vasos comunicantes, estará abierta al público hasta el 15 de Septiembre en el Museo Nacional de Arte, ubicado en Tacuba 8 del Centro Histórico de la Ciudad de México. Horario de visita: martes a domingo, 10:00 a 17:30 horas. Admisión general: $37 pesos.

RMM/GT

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