Tres dimensiones

Primera

¿Listos? Juguemos un juego: calcule el año de la primera película exhibida en 3-D. ¿Alguien? Allá…. 2005. No. ¿1998? No ¿1985? Tampoco. ¿Nadie? Bueno, descubrimos la respuesta correcta y es… Mil novecientos veintidós. No señor, ninguna estafa.

Las malditas gafas rojiazules se utilizaron por primera vez hace 90 malditos años. Y bueno, aquello fue un fracaso. No es que a nadie le interesara en absoluto, sino que producir y proyectar era carísimo, y ninguna audiencia, por masiva que fuera, iba a cubrir los costos (menos aún a reportar ganancias) de tan excéntrico experimento. Los intentos se mantuvieron algunos años, sí, pero la hecatombe de los dineros en 1929 echó por tierra cualquier posibilidad de abaratar los costos.

Con más quietud y paciencia que una momia egipcia, el 3D tuvo que esperar mejores días. Si emprendemos una caminata desde la década de 1930 hasta 1980, encontramos brotes, aunque más esporádicos que los de sarampión.

En la sudorosa batalla de las salas de cine contra la televisión, alrededor de 1950 y en las décadas siguientes, cortometrajes o simuladores en tres dimensiones competían con excentricidades como el Cine 360º (con una pantalla circular que cubría todo el diámetro de la sala) o el encantadoramente ridículo Odorama (cine con olores). Ninguno llegó a ser más que una atracción de ferias, y nadie le auguraba mayor futuro que ese. Aunque lo mismo se dijo del cine mismo, años atrás…

Segunda

¿Listos? Juguemos otro juego. Levanten la mano quienes prefieran descargarse una película en la red, comprarla en la esquina o quedarse en casa a twittear y ver muros, sin película… Vale. Levanten la mano ahora quienes prefieran ir a una sala de cine…. ¿No? ¿Nadie? Gracias.

El mundo no se va a acabar en 2012. A menos, claro, que seas un trajeado magnate de los cines multisala y te resistas a adquirir proyectores digitales para 3D y un buen lote de gafas bicolor, porque antes de que acabe el verano empezarás a vender seguros puerta a puerta. ¿El 3D no tenía futuro? Alguien parece haber cambiado de opinión.

En la sudorosa batalla de las salas de cine contra (tome aire): Facebook, Twitter, pantallas de plasma, myspace, Blu-Ray, YouTube, Cuevana, HBO, AMC, MTV, Blackberry, Android, tablets, podcasts, iPad, iPod, iPhone, iOS, iMac, iTunes y otra crisis financiera… el Dr. Victor “Industria fílmica” Frankenstein ha tenido que regresar al laboratorio y resucitar a su mórbida criatura abandonada: la tercera dimensión. El cine ha salido irremediablemente del cine (vea usted cualquier episodio de Mad Men antes de discutir eso), pero los magnates aún pueden y quieren devolver a las masas a las salas. Bueno, a sus salas.

Allá atrás vi a alguien levantar una ceja y arriscar la nariz. ¿No era ésta una columna de cine serio, del “buen” (sic) cine? ¿Qué le pasa a este idiota? ¿Ahora va a hablar de The Avengers, Lórax y Titanic en 3D y va a ignorar la muerte de Claude Miller, el premio de los Tavianni en la Berlinale, el estreno de la película prohibida de Jafar Panahi o la de cinco horas de Raúl Ruíz?

Respuesta: No. Pensemos en el cine mundial como una industria global e interconectada, multigenérica, una donde existen Megan Fox y Krzystof Kieslowski al mismo tiempo, y que en alguna medida la mediatización millonaria de la primera permite costear la distribución en DVD, masterización, subtitulado y exhibición en festivales del segundo. ¿Triste? Sí. Aunque cierto. El cine, aún el digital, sigue siendo la disciplina creativa más groseramente cara de todas.

Ahora volvamos a nuestro asunto.

Tercera

Festival Internacional de Cine de Berlín, 2011. Han pasado 40 años desde que el Nuevo Cine Alemán irrumpiera en las pantallas de los festivales del mundo. El mundo estaba tenso. La juventud, eufórica. Alemania eran dos Alemanias. Pero hoy, dos de los alumnos más aplicados (o más rebeldes) de aquella generación regresan a la Berlinale para volver a cambiarle el rumbo a las cosas: Wim Wenders y Werner Herzog presentan Pina y La cueva de los sueños olvidados, respectivamente.

¿Por qué tanto rumoreo esta vez, si ellos son tan prolíficos y estrenan novedades un año sí y al otro igual? Porque esta vez presentan documentales de autor.… en 3D. El primero, cruce entre el documental de semblanza, el cine musical y el performance en video, es un homenaje abrumadoramente plástico al legado coreográfico de Pina Bausch, fallecida a punto de iniciar el rodaje. El segundo, el de Herzog, es una crónica personal del encuentro de un cineasta con los primeros atisbos de imagen en movimiento: las pinturas rupestres encontradas en cuevas casi intactas de Chauvet, Francia.

No es todo. Apenas unas semanas atrás, el Festival de Cine de Miami ha exhibido Pequeñas Voces, película colombiana de animación que es, al mismo tiempo, el primer largometraje latinoamericano en tercera dimensión. Pequeñas Voces, proyecto de vocación profundamente humanista, está narrado de viva voz por niños de entre 8 y 13 años desplazados e incluso mutilados durante la guerra colombiana contra el narcotráfico; además, la mezcla de animación tradicional con fondos digitales ha permitido narrarla utilizando dibujos hechos por los mismos niños.

Al final del año llegaría la síntesis y summa del proceso: La invención de Hugo Cabret, de Martin Scorsese, llegaría a salas de todo el mundo anunciándose, sí, como entrañable taquillazo navideño, pero con una novedad: ahora el 3D estaba amparado por una de las vacas sagradas del cine contemporáneo, uno de los autores indispensables del cine que vemos hoy. El motivo no podía ser más significativo: un sincero y emotivo homenaje a Georges Méliès, el primer ilusionista del siglo (de quien ya hablamos unas columnas atrás), filmado con la  tecnología que inauguraba el siguiente siglo audiovisual. El círculo estaba cerrado…. o apenas abierto.

¿Cuarta?

Un documental, un performance sui generis, una remembranza de Mélies y una cinta de animación latinoamericana son los primeros síntomas de expansión del cine en 3D hacia los terrenos periféricos de la industria; periféricos a los grandes estudios, a las narrativas tradicionales, al relumbrón mediático y a las grandes estrellas de marquesina. Una vez calmada la atronadora explosión comercial, de marketing, de las superproducciones en 3D, una vez que van dejando de ser la última novedad de los centros comerciales, continúa el proceso natural de toda tecnología: el abaratamiento de costos que permite, cada vez más, su exploración en terrenos menos lucrativos.

Pasaron varias décadas desde aquella afirmación que desdeñaba al 3D como una curiosidad sin futuro. Se referían, por supuesto, a un futuro comercial. La primera década de este siglo refutó esas afirmaciones en un abrir y cerrar de ojos: los veranos se llenaron de pésimas secuelas tridimensionales, personajes animados sin carisma y espectaculares explosiones, automáticamente olvidables. Ahora, la difusión técnica del 3D nos ha llevado a formular una pregunta que ni siquiera habíamos considerado: si hay un futuro económico para la tercera dimensión ¿tiene también un futuro estético, narrativo, plástico, discursivo?, ¿hasta dónde llegan las nuevas posibilidades del formato?, ¿estamos ante un inmenso terreno virgen o ante una llamarada de petate? Después de todo… ¿qué habría hecho Bergman, o Eisenstein, o Jean Vigo con un proyector de tercera dimensión?

Nota: Pina en 3D, distribuida por CANANA, al fin se encuentra en exhibición en algunas salas mexicanas. La experiencia es abrumadora y no puedo hacer nada más (ni nada menos) que recomendarla con entusiasmo. De la misma forma, la colombiana Pequeñas voces forma parte de la selección del 32 Foro Internacional de la Cineteca, actualmente en exhibición. Lamentablemente, me parece que las copias exhibidas son en 2D. La cueva de los sueños olvidados y La invención de Hugo Cabret han tenido una distribución más amplia, y no debe haber mayor problema en conseguirlas en DVD o Blu-Ray en cualquier punto de venta de discos.

RMM/SBH /DIE LIEBE PANDEMONIUM

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