Un poco de música experimental

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La Ley de la conservación de la energía afirma que “la energía no se crea ni se destruye, sólo se transforma”. Así, la energía eléctrica fue transformada en sonidos armónicos.

Un suspiro, un llanto, un silbido, un grito, una palabra, un paso, una caricia, la caída de una hoja, el viento rozando la piel… más de 20 mil vibraciones que puede captar el oído humano. El ruido dejó de ser un obstáculo en la comunicación humana para convertirse en sonoridad, en música, en radio.

Han surgido la escultura sonora, poesía sonora, instalación sonora, screen based art, audio arte, música experimental, radio arte, música electroacústica, electrónica, paisaje sonoro, acciones sonoras, intermedia, sampling, plunderphonia y demás nuevos conceptos en el tratamiento de la volatilidad sónica.

Experimentos musicales

A pesar de que el término música experimental surgió hasta 1955 con John Cage, muchos ensayos se realizaron con anterioridad para producir instrumentos y crear musicalidad a través de ondas electromagnéticas.

A principios del siglo XX numerosas técnicas, procedimientos y materiales se utilizaron para dar inicio a la revolución en el campo musical y de las concepciones sonoras. Consecuencia de ello es que, en la actualidad, existen aparatos con los cuales es posible obtener caóticos sonidos: software, inventos eléctricos, consolas, sintetizadores, plataformas, programación… la infinidad de aplicaciones en las nuevas tecnologías de la información.

Por ejemplo, el fonógrafo, de Tomás Alba Edison, desencadenó una serie de hechos y diversos tratamientos, tanto en la sonoridad del mundo como en la invención musical; en las ciencias, en la música, el teatro, el cine, los medios de comunicación, el periodismo y otros más que causaron cambios en la producción y percepción sonora de la naturaleza, de la voz y, en general, de la humanidad. Éste aparato otorgó la posibilidad de grabar cualquier sonido de cualquier naturaleza y reproducirlo en cualquier contexto.

El sintetizador

El Telarmonio es el antecedente de los primeros sintetizadores –utilizados para producir sonidos artificiales- y constituyó una herramienta clave para transformar  la experimentación musical.

El Telarmonio utilizaba una rueda de tonos para el órgano y el piano; pesaba aproximadamente 200 toneladas y medía 18 metros de largo. Se fundaba en la síntesis sustractiva de sonido, es decir, aquel proceso en el que los sonidos que no son el sonido predeterminado se eliminan mediante filtros. Con ello, logró rebasar a los electrófonos, que no permitían generar sonidos subarmónicos.

Cabe decir que, de acuerdo al tipo de manipulación de corrientes eléctricas manejadas por los sintetizadores, éstos pueden catalogarse en analógicos (a través de una onda de FM) y digitales (a través de un ordenador), los cuales se apoyan en varias técnicas de medición matemática como modulación de frecuencia, síntesis sustractiva y auditiva, modelado físico y de fase, etcétera.

El Moog Modular utilizado por la banda inglesa, The Beatles -el Yamaha dx-1- o el Moog Taurus de U2; el ARP Odyseey de Vangelis; el EMS VCS3 por Pink Floyd, el NED Sinclavier de Frank Zappa o el Roland JP-8000 de los Ozric Tentacles, son unos cuantos en la numerosa serie de sintetizadores que han modificado la manera de generar música alrededor del mundo.

La música experimental en México

La escena de la música experimental en México se ha enriquecido gracias a los diversos festivales, encuentros, exposiciones, blogs y  otras comunicaciones a través de las redes sociales.

Algunos de los festivales y organizaciones son El nicho. Espacio exclusivo de música experimental en México, RADAR, Festival de Música Experimental, Border, El Festival Internacional de Arte Sonoro, Simulacros Naturales en Ex Teresa Arte Actual, La Galería Interferencial Dorkbot –ésta última definida como “serie de reuniones periódicas de gente interesada en las áreas de arte, ciencia, tecnología y medios”, se lee en su página web.

Dorkbot (http://www.dorkbotcdmexico.org) “es gente haciendo cosas raras con la electricidad” en el mundo y en la Ciudad de  México; se integra por Iván Abreu, Juan José Rivas, Mario de Vega, Arcángel Constantini, Dyan Pritam y Antonio Domínguez: artistas e investigadores que generan encuentros en “raros ambientes” a través de experimentos, investigaciones e improvisaciones del ambiente sonoro nacional e internacional.

AM/RL

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