Viaje en mapa este 2010

mapa

(Mex) En el marco del programa cultural del Bicentenario de la Independencia y el Centenario de la Revolución Mexicana, la Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores en colaboración con el Mandato Antiguo Colegio de San Ildefonso presentan la exposición cartográfica Paseo en mapa. Explorando las claves de América Latina.

Mapas, tesoros documentales depositados en archivos y bibliotecas de España y México, así como cartas digitalizadas de las colecciones de la Universidad Francisco Marroquín de Guatemala; de los ministerios de Relaciones Exteriores y de Cultura de Brasil; del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores del Perú; de la Biblioteca Nacional de Chile; de la Biblioteca Real de Dinamarca y de la Fundación Giménez Lorente de la Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, España (cuatro mapas, uno de los cuales data del siglo XVI y otro del siglo XVII), se han integrado como un atractivo elemento museográfico y de transmisión de conocimientos.

Frente al público se encuentran más de trescientos años de historia cartográfica del continente americano, que van desde sus primeros trazos tras su descubrimiento, pasando por los siglos de dominación y conflicto español-portugués con las firmas del tratado de Tordesillas en 1494 y el Tratado de Madrid hacia 1750 con su frase propia del despotismo ilustrado: “Quien tiene de hecho tiene de derecho”. La exposición también posee mapas de los primeros años de los Estados independientes de América.

Los mapas han formado parte de la fascinación humana, son reflejo de la imperiosa necesidad del hombre por conocer y construir, son imagen del devenir histórico de la humanidad y son un claro ejemplo de la fusión de arte y práctica. Los mapas se revelan poco a poco como una fotografía y a medida que se hacen más nítidos, en que las líneas divisorias entre la tierra y el mar se definen con más exactitud denotan la vanguardia del saber en ese rubro.

La cartografía y los descubrimientos geográficos también fueron portadores de supersticiones, historias de tiempos en que el hombre aún creía que los horripilantes leviatanes saldrían de las profundidades marinas para tragarse la nave completa, o relatos en que hombres aseguraban haber enfrentado a las amazonas en Sudamérica.

El temor por lo desconocido también se presenta en los mapas, lo demuestran las leyendas acerca de lugares lejanos y la heterogeneidad con que se representaban los primeros mapas de América, cuyos dibujos muestran al continente recién descubierto casi como una gran mancha voraz que amenazaba con tragarse la homogeneidad europea ¿Cuál era pues el trabajo de los conquistadores, religiosos y cartógrafos? Definir costas y bahías, naciones y nuevos territorios, construir ciudades; en el caso de los españoles integrar a América en la cultura occidental, convertir a los herederos de la cultura mesoamericana al cristianismo e ingresarlos en su sistema de explotación.

Son los mapas, una cara más de ese deseo de construir y puede verse en ellos el regocijo del hombre que nombra y el miedo de quien no sabe dónde se halla, a medida que se traza la imaginación quiere más, anhela ingresar a otros rumbos. Ahora el hombre ha logrado captar con mapas y diversas técnicas casi el total de del globo; no sin pequeños errores, lo que no significa que su búsqueda haya terminado, sólo tenemos que voltear al cielo para contemplar el más profundo deseo del hombre, la conquista primordial en la que se encuentra como Magallanes en el sur.

La muestra en San Ildefonso vislumbra tal alcance, la última sala de la exposición está dedicada en gran parte a los mapas del universo que se encuentran en marcha hoy día, la forma de las galaxias y las caprichosas como hermosas formaciones estelares que representan en muchos casos un enigma y la visión de los mapas de algunos artistas plásticos.

La muestra consta de ocho salas distribuidas por épocas históricas y posee alrededor de noventa mapas, videos interactivos dirigidos en especial al público infantil y ambientaciones a lo largo del recorrido. Se tiene planeado que la exposición viaje a otros países latinoamericanos: Brasil, Chile, Guatemala y Argentina.

La exposición “Paseo en mapa. Explorando las claves de América Latina” estará abierta al público, del 25 de marzo al 25 de julio, en el Antiguo Colegio de San Ildefonso.

RL

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